Conventional Diaphragm Electrolysis
Conventional diaphragm electrolysis technology is expensive to scale up, unreliable, often ‘clogs’ up, does not last long and have higher maintenance levels. Conventional diaphragm electrolysis, utilizing 50MW would approximately cost $70 million +$7 million for the cryogenic storage of liquid oxygen.
ECOGLOBAL SOLUTION: Scaled up hardware is less than half the price! The Eco Global Fuels hydroxy electrolysis, utilizing 50MW would approximately cost $25 million + $7 million for the cryogenic separation of hydrogen from oxygen including storage of the liquid oxygen. EcoGlobal Solanol production is financially achievable because it can be economically scaled up, (half the cost of the competition), has very low maintenance costs, does not use diaphragms which clog and need constant replacement, and has cell units made from low cost materials that are durable and reliable.
The new ‘Hydrogen Economy’
The majority of hydrogenation processes rely on hydrogen produced from fossil hydrocarbon stocks, which is polluting and inefficient. Hydrogen itself as a fuel is dangerous, not easily transportable, inefficient to transport (hard to compress) and has no existing distribution infrastructure.
ECOGLOBAL SOLUTION: We convert the hydrogen we produce
Immediately on site to useable transport fuels such as ethanol, which uses existing infra structure to transport and distribute. The process we use to manufacture hydrogen is 60 % more efficient, without pol- luting the environment or using fossil fuels.
The new Biofuel Industry
In the US the feedstock is primarily corn, while in Brazil it is sugar- cane. The USA in 2007 was producing 7 billion gallons (26.9 liters) per year, while the world production of biofuel ethanol was around 13.5 billion gallons. There are some big players, and large agribusinesses like ADM, and Cargill. Interesting technology is emerging with Algae fuel, which uses large-scale open ponds, sunlight, photosynthesis and organisms.
ECOGLOBAL SOLUTION: We do not use food. Food is for people to eat. The use of cellulose products, such as corn or sugar in the production of the Ethanol, is not carbon neutral, increases the cost of basic foods, which causes a negative effect on the worlds food supply. There are some new interesting developments using Algae for ethanol production, which is more sustainable and less harmful to the environment, and per unit mass yields 30 times more that biofuel crops. However, such fuel remains too expensive, with algae species costing between $5-10 per kilogram.
NOTE: We are not in competition with any biofuel companies because the marketplace cannot get enough of renewable fuels. The future will have a variety of bio-fuel sources, and governments are re- questing the width possible variety of carbon neutral energy. The U.S. federal government gives ethanol producers a 51-cent-per-gallon tax credit and mandates that their fuel be blended into the nation’s gasoline supplies. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires that 4 billion gallons of “renewable fuel” be used in 2006 and this requirement will grow to a yearly production of 7.5 billion gallons by 2012.
UV Artificial Photosynthesis to Produce Methanol
This technology is modeled after the photosynthesis effect that occurs in plant cells. A process of artificial photosynthesis, and a chemical reaction during which water and carbon dioxide, in the presence of a catalyst and under the influence of deep ultraviolet, converts (hydrogenation) the feedstock into methanol. This method is being spearheaded in Poland. The formula is 2n CO2 + 2n H2O + photons → 2(CH2O) n + 2n O2. The missing “energy complement” is provided by the methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process. Methanol produced in the process is separated from water and, through MTG, it is concentrated to higher hydrocarbons, which is different kinds of gasoline and diesel fuel.
MTG synthesis is a highly exothermic reaction (the energy does not come from combustion) and employs a catalyst based on ZSM-5 zeolite; a compound classified as synthetic aluminosilicate. The researchers are yet to study the impact of pollution on methanol production and check the course of the process whereby CO2 mixes with air. For the time being, the CO2 has to be separated from other gases, including oxygen and nitrogen, and the photocatalyst is only efficient in the presence of high-energy photons (5eV).
ECOGLOBAL SOLUTION: Methanol, which the UV process produces, has a very low octane valve and is not suited to the transport fuel industry. Ethanol, which the EcoGlobal process produces, is totally suited to the transport fuels industry. The catalyst they use is not cheap. The catalyst EcoGlobal uses is economically viable. The surface area necessary for the UV light is massive! If they use UV light bulbs- they still need to be ‘powered’ by the sun or wind power to make it carbon neutral- hence making the whole procedure very inefficient. We use 100% sunlight for Solanol production. They use only the UV spectrum, which is 0.002 % of sunlight. They are mixing CO2 with steam and steam needs energy to be produced. The ultra- violet energy from the sun will not, commercially or cost-effectively, sustain ROI for this process.
Artificial photosynthesis cells (currently) last no longer than a few years (unlike PV and passive solar panels, for example in our Solanol production, which last twenty years or longer). The cost for alteration right now is not advantageous enough to compete with fossil fuels and natural gas as a viable source of mainstream energy. Their research in still several years away- the planet cannot wait that long.
New Technologies from MIT
Solar power has a unique potential to generate vast amounts of clean energy that’s doesn’t contribute to global warming. But without cheap methods to store this energy, at the moment it cannot replace fossil fuels on a larger scale. In the MIT scenario, sunlight would split water to produce versatile, easy to store hydrogen fuel that could be later be burned in an internal combustion generator or recombined with oxygen in a fuel cell. For a household, MIT researchers have devised an inexpensive catalyst that produces oxygen from water at room temperatures, like the same benign conditions found in plants. There are problems with its scalability and it seems the setup to split water is much slower that using electrolysis. Many researchers suggest it is better to spend the money on improving battery storage of solar energy, rather than developing an artificial form of photosynthesis.
ECOGLOBAL SOLUTION: We can do the same; units can be scaled down to household size, and can be used for heat and electricity generation. However that is not our focus at the moment.
Electric Car Development and Cell Technology
Research has revealed that plug-in electric vehicles are limited in range to a maximum 400 kilometers using the most up- to-date battery technology. (With a one-hour recharge). It be- comes obvious that hybrid technology must be incorporated to extend range. Solanol can complement and supply the necessary carbon neutral alcohol fuel to extend this range. The world uses 40% of its energy as liquid fuels for transportation
ECOGLOBAL SOLUTION: We see no competition with this developing technology. Remember, the electricity used for cars comes from smoke stack coal burning industries. Hybrids will also need access to fuels such as Ethanol. Larger vehicles such as trucks, trains and planes will always need a high-octane fuel. Potentially, a Solanol Plant making the whole process of driving an electric car a 100% carbon neutral experience could produce the electricity required for hybrid cars! Now that’s what we call a sexy car!
Protecting the Environment
At Eco Global Fuels, our real bottom line is protecting the environment. Given that nature itself is the infrastructure on which the future clean energy economy is built, we view the environment as the ultimate good investment.
In this new interconnected global world, EGF sees a larger theme emerging: Environmental science is now on the agenda. This science is now the economic geopolitical engine for global sustainable growth.
Nature’s boardroom with its atoms, molecules and ions are better-feed stock elements for humanity than those of fossil hydrocarbons. (It has always been for the renewable energy-fuel sciences a question of commercial vested interests, political expediency, and the financials in commercializing these systems. Not any more.
This invention introduce to the free-market economy and the global body-politic in energy economics, a potential major player within the global warming and climate change debate.
This invention in both product and process terms is mature and has technological substance that is timely, sustainable and cost effective…that respects the sanctity of nature with its pristine elements such as the sun, geothermal, wind, air, and water for all our future energy, fuel, and food needs.
The Green Energy Boom
Investments in clean technologies topped US$5 billion in 2007 – a massive 44 percent increase from the previous year. Energy generation companies were the primary recipients, attracting financing of US$2.7 billion. Economists have forecasted a continuation of this trend in the years to come, citing alternative energy generation industries such as solar, hydro, wind, and geothermal as the focus of venture funding as well as incentives and grants generated by the Obama administration.
The problem with a number of carbon-free energy initiatives is that they are not 100 percent renewable. In addition to being unsustainable from an environmental perspective, the use of cellulose products such as corn for the production of ethanol is inflationary and, in the case of third world nations where hunger is epidemic, potentially crippling. The Eco Global Fuels model for alcohol production is more cost-effective than that for producing corn-based ethanol, yielding a higher ROI without subsidies and without having any effect on food prices.
Another problem with many of these “solutions” is that they frequently cannot be integrated into the current energy transport infrastructure. The fact that we immediately convert the hydrogen we produce into an alcohol-based liquid allows Eco Global Fuels to utilize existing infrastructure marketing and technical for the safe – and cost-efficient – transportation of our products.
Referred to as 'Steam Reforming' or 'Steam Methane Reforming'. Natural Gas (CNG- CH4) is passed through a catalyst reaction with an external heat source - converts steam and lighter hydro carbons such as methane into hydrogen and carbon monoxide referred to as syn gas. It also produces CO2 in this process. More separation is required to get pure hydrogen.
Wholesale cost of liquid hydrogen, made the cheapest way from steam reforming, based on USA figures, shipped to large customers is approx. $6.00 per kg along with every kg H2 - produces 56 kg of CO2 emissions!
COMPARISON and ECOGLOBAL SOLUTION
EGF process with Electricity @ $0.18 per kWh RETAIL
- E.G.F. process costs 70 kWh per 1 kg of Hydrogen includes producing by-product 8 kg of oxygen.
- Retail price of electricity is $0.18 per kWh (highest prices electricity used in formula below...)
- Note: Wholesale varies around the world e.g $0.04 per kWh
- Hydrogen: 18 cents X 70 kWh = $12.60
- Oxygen: 40 cents per kg retail = $3.20 (0.40 x 8kg)
- E.G.F. process Carbon credits = $0.37 per kg Hydrogen
- FORMULA: Hydrogen $12.60 minus Oxygen $3.20 minus Carbon Credits 0.37
- EGF Retail cost of making Hydrogen = $9.03 per kg Hydrogen without emissions and without government subsides
COMPARISON and ECOGLOBAL SOLUTION
EGF process with Electricity @ $0.04 per kWh wholesale
- E.G.F. process costs 70 kWh per kg of Hydrogen.
- EGF also produced by-product 8 kg oxygen.
- Wholesale electricity $0.04 per kWh.
- Hydrogen: $0.04 cents X 70 kWh = $2.80.
- Oxygen: 20 cents per kg (8 kg) wholesale = $1.60.
- E.G.F. process Carbon credits = $0.37 per kg Hydrogen
- FORMULA:Hydrogen $2.80 minus Oxygen $1.60 minus Carbon Credits 0.37
- EGF wholesale cost of making Hydrogen = $0.83 per kg Hydrogen
- MAKING this the cheapest hydrogen in the world
SUMMARY EGF COMPARISON
- E.G.F. produces no CO2
- Gains Carbon credits
- Produces O2 as by-product that can be used also for oxy-firing of coal powered Stations and sold for industry
- We use CO2 in Ethanol production basic costs are stable: water and steel
SUMMARY COMPARISON to Conventional Hydrogen production
- Costs going up
- Major CO2 emissions
- Taxed at beginning $23 per tonne
- Tax going up +++ over years to come
- reliant on fossil fuels
- fossil fuels costs going up and all are non renewable